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 Normal Values
Laboratory Test Values | Haematology Reference Values | Glucose Tolerance Test
Urine Test | Drug Levels | Classification of Blood Pressure
Laboratory Test Values
Test Normal value Clinical Significance
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) 7-18 mg/dL Increased in renal disease and dehydration; decreased in liver damage and malnutrition
Carbon dioxide (CO2) (includes bicarbonate) 23-30 mmol/L Useful to evaluate acid-base balance by measuring total carbon dioxide in the blood: Elevated in vomiting and pulmonary disease; decreased in diabetic acidosis, acute renal failure, and hyperventilation
Chloride (Cl) 98-106 mEq/L Increased in dehydration, hyperventilation, and congestive heart failure; decreased in vomiting,diarrhea, and fever
Creatinine 0.6-1.2 mg/dL Produced at a constant rate and excreted by the kidney; increased in kidney disease
Glucose Fasting: 70-110 mg/dL Random: 85-125 mg/dL Increased in diabetes and severe illness; decreased in insulin overdose or hypoglycemia
Potassium (K) 3.5-5 mEq/L Increased in renal failure, extensive cell damage, and acidosis; decreased in vomiting, diarrhea, and excess administration of diuretics or IV fluids
Sodium (Na) 101-111 mEq/L or 135-148 mEq/L (depending on test) Increased in dehydration and diabetes insipidus; decreased in overload of IV fluids, burns,diarrhea, or vomiting
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) 10-40 U/L Used to diagnose and monitor treatment of liver disease and to monitor the effects of drugs on the liver; increased in myocardial infarction
Albumin 3.8-5.0 g/dL Albumin holds water in blood; decreased in liver disease and kidney disease
Albumin-globulin ratio (A/G ratio) Greater than 1 Low A/G ratio signifies a tendency for edema because globulin is less effective than albumin at holding water in the blood
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) 20-70 U/L (varies by method) Enzyme of bone metabolism; increased in liver disease and metastatic bone disease
Amylase 21-160 U/L Used to diagnose and monitor treatment of acute pancreatitis and to detect inflammation of the salivary glands
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) 0-41 U/L (varies) Enzyme present in tissues with high metabolic activity; increased in myocardial infarction and liver disease
Bilirubin, total 0.2-1.0 mg/dL Breakdown product of hemoglobin from red blood cells; increased when excessive red blood cells are being destroyed or in liver disease
Calcium (Ca) 8.8-10.0 mg/dL Increased in excess parathyroid hormone production and in cancer; decreased in alkalosis, elevated phosphate in renal failure, and excess IV fluids
Cholesterol 120-220 mg/dL desirable range Screening test used to evaluate risk of heart disease; levels of 200 mg/dL or above indicate increased risk of heart disease and warrant further investigation
Creatine phosphokinase (CPK or CK) Men: 38-174 U/L Women: 96-140 U/L Elevated enzyme level indicates myocardial infarction or damage to skeletal muscle. When elevated,specific fractions (isoenzymes) are tested for
Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) Men: 6-26 U/L Women: 4-18 U/L Used to diagnose liver disease and to test for chronic alcoholism
Globulins 2.3-3.5 g/dL Proteins active in immunity; help albumin keep water in blood
Iron, serum (Fe) Men: 75-175 g/dL Women:65-165 /dL Decreased in iron deficiency and anemia; increased in hemolytic conditions
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) Men: 30-70 mg/dL Women:30-85 mg/dL Used to evaluate the risk of heart disease
Lactic dehydrogenase(LDH or LD) 95-200 U/L (Normal ranges vary greatly) Enzyme released in many kinds of tissue damage, including myocardial infarction, pulmonary infarction, and liver disease
Lipase 4-24 U/L (varies with test) Enzyme used to diagnose pancreatitis
Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) 80-140 mg/dL Used to evaluate the risk of heart disease
Magnesium (Mg) 1.3-2.1 mEq/L Vital in neuromuscular function; decreased levels may occur in malnutrition, alcoholism, pancreatitis, diarrhea
Phosphorus ((Page*)) (inorganic) 2.7-4.5 mg/dL Evaluated in response to calcium; main store is in bone: elevated in kidney disease; decreased in excess parathyroid hormone
Protein, total 6-8 g/dL Increased in dehydration, multiple myeloma;decreased in kidney disease, liver disease, poor nutrition, severe burns, excessive bleeding
Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (SGOT) > See Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) > See Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
Thyroxin (T4) 5-12.5 g/dL (varies) Screening test of thyroid function; increased in hyperthyroidism; decreased in myxedema and hypothyroidism
Thyroid-stimulatinghormone TSH) 0.5-6 mlU/L Produced by pituitary to promote thyroid gland function; elevated when thyroid gland is not functioning
Triiodothyronine (T3) 120-195 mg/dL Elevated in specific types of hyperthyroidism
Triglycerides Men: 40-160 mg/dL Women: 35-135 mg/dL An indication of ability to metabolize fats; increased triglycerides and cholesterol indicate high risk of atherosclerosis
Uric acid Men: 3.5-7.2 mg/dL Women:2.6-6.0 mg/dL Produced by breakdown of ingested purines in food and nucleic acids; elevated in kidney disease, gout, and leukemia
[Top]
Normal Laboratory Values (Haematology Reference Values)
In the following tables, normal haematology reference values for commonly requested laboratory tests are listed in
traditional units and in SI units. The tables are a guideline only. Values are method dependent and normal lab values may
vary between laboratories.
Determination Normal Reference Value
Conventional units SI units
Blood, Plasma or Serum
Ammonia (NH3) - diffusion 20-120 mcg/dl 12-70 mcmol/L
Ammonia Nitrogen 15-45 µg/dl 11-32 µmol/L
Amylase 35-118 IU/L 0.58-1.97 mckat/L
Anion gap (Na+-[Cl- + HCO3- ]) (P) 7-16 mEq/L 7-16 mmol/L
Antithrombin III (AT III) 80–120 U/dl 800–1200 U/L
Bicarbonate
Arterial 21–28 mEq/L 21–28 mmol/L
Venous 22–29 mEq/L 22–29 mmol/L
Bilirubin
Conjugated (direct) Total <=0.2 mg/dl & 0.1–1 mg/dl <=4 mcmol/L &
Calcitonin < 100 pg/ml < 100 ng/L
Calcium
Total 8.6–10.3 mg/dl 2.2–2.74 mmol/L
Ionized 4.4–5.1 mg/dl 1–1.3 mmol/L
Carbon dioxide content (plasma) 21–32 mmol/L 21–32 mmol/L
Carcinoembryonic antigen < 3 ng/ml < 3 mcg/L
Chloride 95–110 mEq/L 95–110 mmol/L
Coagulation screen
Bleeding time 3–9.5 min 180–570 sec
Prothrombin time 10–13 sec 10–13 sec
Partial thromboplastin time (activated) 22–37 sec 22–37 sec
Protein C 0.7–1.4 µ/ml 700–1400 U/ml
Protein S 0.7–1.4 µ/ml 700–1400 U/ml
Copper, total 70–160 mcg/dl 11–25 mcmol/L
Corticotropin (ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone) - 0800 hr < 60 pg/ml < 13.2 pmol/L
Cortisol
0800 hr 5–30 mcg/dl 138–810 nmol/L
1800 hr 2–15 mcg/dl 50–410 nmol/L
2000 hr <=50% of 0800 hr <=50% of 0800 hr
Creatine kinase
Female 20–170 IU/L 0.33–2.83 mckat/L
Male 30–220 IU/L 0.5–3.67 mckat/L
Creatinine kinase isoenzymes, MB fraction 0–12 IU/L 0–0.2 mckat/L
Creatinine 0.5–1.7 mg/dl 44–150 mcmol/L
Fibrinogen (coagulation factor I) 150–360 mg/dl 1.5–3.6 g/L
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
Female 2–13 mlU/ml 2–13 IU/L
Midcycle 5–22 mlU/ml 5–22 IU/L
Male 1–8 mlU/ml 1–8 IU/L
Glucose, fasting 65–115 mg/dl 3.6–6.3 mmol/L
Glutamyltransferase (GGT)
Male 9–50 units/L 9–50 units/L
Female 8–40 units/L 8–40 units/L
Haptoglobin 44–303 mg/dl 0.44–3.03 g/L
Hematologic Tests
Fibrinogen 200–400 mg/dl 2–4 g/L
Hematocrit (Hct)
female 36%-44.6% 0.36–0.446 fraction of 1
male 40.7%-50.3% 0.4–0.503 fraction of 1
Hemoglobin A 1C 5.3%-7.5% of total Hgb 0.053–0.075
Hemoglobin (Hb)
female 12.1–15.3 g/dl 121–153 g/L
male 13.8–17.5 g/dl 138–175 g/L
Leukocyte count (WBC) 3800–9800/mcl 3.8–9.8 x 109/L
Erythrocyte count (RBC)
female 3.5–5 x 106/mcl 3.5–5 x 1012/L
male 4.3–5.9 x 106/mcl 4.3–5.9 x 1012/L
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 80–97.6 mcm3 80–97.6 fl
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 27–33 pg/cell 1.66–2.09 fmol/cell
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentrate (MCHC) 33–36 g/dl 20.3–22 mmol/L
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sedrate, ESR) <=30 mm/hr <=30 mm/hr
Erythrocyte enzymes
Glucose-6 - Pphosphate dehydrognase (G-6-PD) 250–5000 units/106 cells 250–5000 mcunits/cell
Ferritin 10–383 ng/ml 23–862 p mol/L
Folic acid >3.1–12.4 ng/ml 7–28.1 n mol/L
normal Platelet count 150–450 x 103/mcl 150–450 x 109/L
Reticulocytes 0.5%-1.5% of erythrocytes 0.005–0.015
Vitamin B12 223–1132 pg/ml 165–835 pmol/L
Iron
Female 30–160 mcg/dl 5.4–31.3 mcmol/L
Male 45–160 mcg/dl 8.1–31.3 mcmol/L
Iron binding capacity 220–420 mcg/dl 39.4–75.2 mcmol/L
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1.2–7 units/L 1.2–7 units/L
Isoenzymes
Fraction 1 14%-26% of total 0.14–0.26 fraction of total
Fraction 2 29%-39% of total 0.29–0.39 fraction of total
Fraction 3 20%-26% of total 0.20–0.26 fraction of total
Fraction 4 8%-16% of total 0.08–0.16 fraction of total
Fraction 5 6%-16% of total 0.06–0.16 fraction of total
Lactate dehydrogenase 100–250 IU/L 1.67–4.17 mckat/L
Lactic acid (lactate) 6–19 mg/dl 0.7–2.1 mmol/L
Lead <=50 mcg/dl <=2.41 mcmol/L
Lipase 10–150 units/L 10–150 units/L
Borderline-high
High > 239 mg/dl > 6.2 mmol/L
LDL < 130 mg/dl < 3.36 mmol/L
Desirable 130–159 mg/dl 3.36–4.11 mmol/L
Borderline-high
High > 159 mg/dl > 4.11 mmol/L
HDL (low) < 35 mg/dl < 0.91 mmol/L
Triglycerides < 200 mg/dl < 2.26 mmol/L
Desirable 200–400 mg/dl 2.26–4.52 mmol/L
Borderline-high
High 400–1000 mg/dl 4.52–11.3 mmol/L
Very high > 1000 mg/dl > 11.3 mmol/L
Magnesium 1.3–2.2 mEq/L 0.65–1.1 mmol/L
Osmolality 280–300 mOsm/kg 280–300 mmol/kg
Oxygen saturation (arterial) 94%-100% 0.94 - fraction of 1
PCO2, arterial 35–45 mm Hg 4.7–6 kPa
pH, arterial 7.35–7.45 7.35–7.45
PO, arterial: Breathing room air On 100% O 80–105 mm Hg > 500 mm Hg 10.6–14 kPa
Phosphatase (acid), total at 37°C 0.13–0.63 IU/L 2.2–10.5 IU/L or 2.2–10.5 mckat/L
Phosphatase alkaline 20–130 IU/L 20–130 IU/L or 0.33–2.17 mckat/L
Phosphorus, inorganic, (phosphate) 2.5–5 mg/dl 0.8–1.6 mmol/L
Potassium 3.5–5 mEq/L 3.5–5 mmol/L
Progesterone
Female
Follicular phase 0.1–1.5 ng/ml 0.32–4.8 nmol/L
Luteal phase 0.1–1.5 ng/ml 0.32–4.8 nmol/L
Male
Follicular phase 2.5–28 ng/ml 8–89 nmol/L
Luteal phase < 0.5 ng/ml < 1.6 nmol/L
Prolactin 1.4–24.2 ng/ml 1.4–24.2 mcg/L
Prostate specific antigen 0–4 ng/ml 0–4 ng/ml
Protein Total 6–8 g/dl 60–80 g/L
Albumin 3.6–5 g/dl 36–50 g/L
Globulin 2.3–3.5 g/dl 23–35 g/L
Rheumatoid factor < 60 IU/ml < 60 kIU/L
Sodium 135–147 mEq/L 135–147 mmol/L
Testosterone
Female 6–86 ng/dl 0.21–3 nmol/L
Male 270–1070 ng/dl 9.3–37 nmol/L
Thyroid Hormone Function Tests
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) 0.35–6.2 mcU/ml 0.35–6.2 mU/L
Thyroxine-binding globulin capacity 10–26 mcg/dl 100–260 mcg/L
Total triiodothyronine (T3) 75–220 ng/dl 1.2–3.4 nmol/L
Total thyroxine by RIA (T4) 4–11 mcg/dl 51–142 nmol/L
T3 resin uptake 25%-38% 0.25–0.38 fraction of 1
Transaminase, AST (aspartate aminotransferase, SGOT) 11–47 IU/L 0.18–0.78 mckat/L
Transaminase, ALT (alanine aminotransferase, SGPT) 7–53 IU/L 0.12–0.88 mckat/L
Transferrin 220–400 mg/dL 2.20–4.00 g/L
Urea nitrogen (BUN) 8–25 mg/dl 2.9–8.9 mmol/L
Uric acid 3–8 mg/dl 179–476 mcmol/L
Vitamin A (retinol) 15–60 mcg/dl 0.52–2.09 mcmol/L
Zinc 50–150 mcg/dl 7.7–23 mcmol/L
[Top]
Glucose Tolerance Test
Glucose Tolerance Test (Oral)
Type (mg/dl) (mmol/L)
Test Normal Diabetic Normal Diabetic
Fasting 70–105 > 140 3.9–5.8 > 7.8
60 min 120–170 >=200 6.7–9.4 >=11.1
90 min 100–140 >=200 5.6–7.8 >=11.1
120 min 70–120 >=140 3.9–6.7 >=7.8
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Urine Test
Urine Test
Determination Reference Value
Conventional units SI units
Calcium 50–250 mcg/day 1.25–6.25 mmol/day
Catecholamines
Epinephrine < 20 mcg/day < 109 nmol/day
Norepinephrine < 100 mcg/day < 590 nmol/day
Catecholamines, 24-hr < 110 µg < 650 nmol
Copper 15–60 mcg/day 0.24–0.95 mcmol/day
Creatinine
Child 8–22 mg/kg 71–195 µmol/kg
Adolescent 8–30 mg/kg 71–265 µmol/kg
Female 0.6–1.5 g/day 5.3–13.3 mmol/day
Male 0.8–1.8 g/day 7.1–15.9 mmol/day
pH 4.5–8 4.5–8
Phosphate 0.9–1.3 g/day 29–42 mmol/day
Potassium 25–100 mEq/day 25–100 mmol/day
Protein
Total 1–14 mg/dL 10–140 mg/L
At rest 50–80 mg/day 50–80 mg/day
Protein, quantitative < 150 mg/day < 0.15 g/day
Sodium 100–250 mEq/day 100–250 mmol/day
Specific gravity, random 1.002–1.030 1.002–1.030
Uric acid, 24-hr 250–750 mg 1.48–4.43 mmol
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Drug Levels
Drug Levels
Drug Determination Reference Value
Conventional units SI units
Aminoglycosides
Amikacin
(trough) 1–8 mcg/ml 20–30 mcg/ml
(peak) 1.7–13.7 mcmol/L 34–51 mcmol/L
Gentamicin
(trough) 0.5–2 mcg/ml 1–4.2 mcmol/L
(peak) 6–10 mcg/ml 12.5–20.9 mcmol/L
Kanamycin
(trough) 5–10 mcg/ml No data available
(peak) 20–25 mcg/ml No data available
Netilimicin
(trough) 0.5–2 mcg/ml No data available
(peak) 6–10 mcg/ml No data available
Streptomycin
(trough) < 5 mcg/ml No data available
(peak) 5–20 mcg/ml No data available
Tobramycin
(trough) 0.5–2 mcg/ml 1.1–4.3 mcmol/L
(peak) 5–20 mcg/ml 12.8–21.8 mcmol/L
Antiarrhythmics
Amiodarone 0.5–2.5 mcg/ml 1.5–4 mcmol/L
Bretylium 0.5–1.5 mcg/ml No data available
Digitoxin 9–25 mcg/L 11.8–32.8 nmol/L
Digoxin 0.8–2 ng/ml 0.9–2.5 nmol/L
Disopyramide 2–8 mcg/ml 6–18 mcmol/L
Flecainide 0.2–1 mcg/ml No data available
Lidocaine 1.5–6 mcg/ml 4.5–21.5 mcmol/L
Mexiletine 0.5–2 mcg/ml No data available
Procainamide 4–8 mcg/ml 17–34 mcmol/ml
Propranolol 50–200 ng/ml 190–770 nmol/L
Quinidine 2–6 mcg/ml 4.6–9.2 mcmol/L
Tocainide 4–10 mcg/ml No data available
Verapamil 0.08–0.3 mcg/ml No data available
Anticonvulsants
Carbamazepine 4–12 mcg/ml 17–51 mcmol/L
Phenobarbital 10–40 mcg/ml 43–172 mcmol/L
Phenytoin 10–20 mcg/ml 40–80 mcmol/L
Primidone 4–12 mcg/ml 18–55 mcmol/L
Valproic Acid 40–100 mcg/ml 280–700 mcmol/L
Antidepressants
Amitriptyline 110–250 ng/ml 500–900 nmol/L
Amoxapine 200–500 ng/ml No data available
Bupropion 25–100 ng/ml No data available
Clomipramine 80–100 ng/ml No data available
Desipramine 115–300 ng/ml No data available
Doxepin 110–250 ng/ml No data available
Imipramine 225–350 ng/ml No data available
Maprotiline 200–300 ng/ml No data available
Nortriptyline 50–150 ng/ml No data available
Protriptyline 70–250 ng/ml No data available
Trazodone 800–1600 ng/ml No data available
Antipsychotics
Chlorpromazine 50–300 ng/ml 150–950 nmol/L
Fluphenazine 0.13–2.8 ng/ml No data available
Haloperidol 5–20 ng/ml No data available
Perphenazine 0.8–1.2 ng/ml No data available
Thiothixene 2–57 ng/ml No data available
Miscellaneous
Amantadine 300 ng/ml No data available
Amrinone 3.7 mcg/ml No data available
Chloramphenicol 10–20 mcg/ml 31–62 mcmol/L
Cyclosporine 250–800 ng/ml (whole blood, RIA) No data available
Cyclosporine 50–300 ng/ml (plasma, RIA) No data available
Ethanol 0 mg/dl 0 mmol/L
Hydralazine 100 ng/ml No data available
Lithium 0.6–1.2 mEq/L 0.6–1.2 mmol/L
Salicylate 100–300 mg/L 724–2172 mcmol/L
Sulfonamide 5–15 mg/dl No data available
Terbutaline 0.5–4.1 ng/ml No data available
Theophylline 10–20 mcg/ml 55–110 mcmol/L
Vancomycin(trough) 5–15 ng/ml No data available
Vancomycin(peak) 20–40 mcg/ml No data available
[Top]
Classification of Blood Pressure
Classification of Blood Pressure
Category Reference Value
Systolic (mm Hg) Diastolic (mm Hg)
Optimal < 120 and   < 80
Normal < 130 and   < 85
High-normal 130–139 or     85–89
Hypertension
Stage 1 140–159 or     90–99
Stage 2 160–179 or     100–109
Stage 3 >=180 or     >=110
        * For adults age 18 and older who are not taking antihypertensive drugs and not acutely ill. When systolic and
diastolic blood pressures fall into different categories, the higher category should be selected to classify the individual's
blood pressure status. In addition to classifying stages of hypertension on the basis of average blood pressure levels,
clinician should specify presence or absence of target organ disease and additional risk factors.
1.  Optimal blood pressure with respect to cardiovascular risk is below 120/88 m Hg. However, unusually low readings
  should be evaluated for clinical significance.
2.  Based on average of two or more readings taken at each of two or more visits after an initial screening.
 
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