+91-022-66620808
contact.phs@paramounttpa.com
 Rate this page   
  Utilities
  Policy & Claim Status
  Corporate Login
  Insurer Login
  Provider Login
  Broker Login
  Artisans Corner
  Document Management System
  SMSB Corner
  JIO Corner
  Approval Module
  Get your Health Risk   Assessment done
  Create your PHR instantly
  Benefit Solutions
  Claim Procedures
  Policy Information
  Standard Guidebook
  FAQs
  Patient Education Videos
  Our Clients
 
  Medical Terms Glossary
Find term :   
All A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 
 
TermDescription
Abcess
An inflamed cavity in the tissue where pus accumulates.
Absorption
The movement of a substance from the site of administration into the bloodstream.
Accommodation
The ability of the bladder wall to stretch as the bladder fills.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS
A syndrome caused by infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV).
Acquired immunity
Mechanisms that an individual develops after birth that defend against foreign substances.
Acute
Short-lived.
Adjuvant
Assisting in the prevention, improvement, or cure of disease.
Adrenaline (epinephrine)
A substance released into the bloodstream by the adrenal glands that cause the heart to beat faster.
Adverse event
Any negative medical occurrence in a patient which does not necessarily relate to treatment.
Aerobic
Using oxygen for metabolism.
Aerosol
Fine particles dispersed in a gas or air.
Affective disorder
A mood disorder.
Afferent
Towards the centre.
Agent
A force or substance that causes a change.
Air hunger
Sensation of breathlessness or suffocation; common sensation experienced by asthma patients.
Alimentary
Related to food or nourishment.
Alimentary canal
The passageway from the mouth to the anus.
Alkaline
The opposite of acid.
Allergen
A trigger that induces the immune response.
Allergic reaction
The process by which a substance triggers an immune response.
Allergist
A physician who treats allergic diseases.
Allergy
A general term describing the immune response to certain substances, which leads to inflammation and the other effects common to this affliction.
Alveoli
Bubble-like air sacs in the lungs.
Anaemia Anemia
A lack of oxygen in the blood due to a shortage of red blood cells. Results in fatigue and breathlessness.
Anaerobic
Not using oxygen for metabolism.
Anaesthesia Anesthesia
1. Total or partial loss of sensation. 2. A drug given to cause same.
Analgesic
A medication that relieves pain.
Anergy
Lack of energy.
Aneurysm
An expansion or bulging of an artery wall due to thinning of the wall.
Anorexia
Diminished appetite or aversion to food.
Anoxia
Reduced oxygen levels in the tissues.
Anterior
Situated nearer to the front part of the body.
Anthrax
An infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium bacillus anthracis. It can occur in three forms.
Antibiotics
Anti-bacterial drugs.
Antibodies Antibody
A protein that is involved in the destruction of disease-causing agents. The human body is capable of generating over a trillion different antibodies.
Antigen
Any substance capable of stimulating the production of antibodies.
Aorta
The main artery supplying oxygen-rich blood to the body; largest artery in the body.
Apnea Apnoea
Temporary cessation of breathing.
Areola
The pigmented area surrounding the nipple.
Arrhythmia
Abnormal heart rhythm.
Artery
Any of the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
Asthma
A respiratory condition characterised by difficulty in breathing, constriction in the chest and often coughing or gasping.
Atria
The first chamber on either side of the heart which receives blood from the veins.
Atypia
An abnormality of a cell.
Aura
The second stage of a migraine. Symptoms include visual disturbances, speech problems, numbness or tingling on one side.
Autonomic
The part of the nervous system responsible for the control of automatic bodily functions.
Axon
The primary fibre of a nerve cell; the axon is the main route of transmission of impulses along a nerve.
Bacteria Bacterium
Single-celled organisms containing a simple DNA structure. Bacteria is plural; bacterium is singular.
Barium
An element that, when added to water, is opaque to x-rays and used for examination of the alimentary canal.
Benign
Not cancerous.
Bilateral
On both sides.
Bile
Thick, greenish-brown fluid that aids in digestion.
Biofeedback
A technique where patients are given visual or audio cues to physiological responses such as heart rate. The patients can then learn to control such responses.
Biopsies Biopsy
Surgical removal of a small sample of tissue for examination to detect disease or the presence of certain substances. The word is also used to describe the sample itself.
Bipolar Bipolar disorder
Any of several mood disorders characterised usually by alternating episodes of depression and mania or by episodes of depression alternating with mild nonpsychotic excitement.
Blinding masking
A procedure in which one or more parties to a clnical trial are kept unaware of the treatment assignment(s).
Blood-brain barrier
Referring to a property of blood vessel cells in the central nervous system that keeps certain substances from entering the brain tissue.
Bolus
A mass of chewed food that is ready to be swallowed.
Bone
Dense, hard, connective tissue that forms the majority of the skeleton of vertebrae animals.
Bone marrow
Soft tissue in the centre of certain bones that produces blood cells.
Brain stem Brainstem
Structure at the base of the brain that controls basic body functions such as respiration and heart rate.
Bronchi
The primary airways.
Bronchitis
Irritation of the large airways (bronchi) due to infection or other causes.
Bypass
A surgical procedure in which a new pathway for the flow of body fluids is created.
Caecum Cecum
Pouch-like structure that connects the small and large intestines.
Calcification
Tissue hardening as a result of calcium deposition.
Cancer
Malignant cell growth.
Capillaries
Microscopic blood vessels that emerge from the arterioles to form a network that reaches nearly every cell in the body.
Carbon dioxide
The gas by-product of exhaling.
Carcinogen
A chemical substance or physical agent that can transform a healthy cell into a cancerous cell.
Carcinogenesis
The evolution of an invasive cancer from a normal cell.
Cardiovascular system
The heart, blood vessels, and the blood. Supplies oxygen to all parts of the body and removes waste materials.
Carpals
Eight small bones of the wrist joint, arranged in two rows of 4 bones each. They connect the metacarpal bones of the hand with the radius and ulna of the forearm.
Cartilage
Flexible, supportive tissue composed of cells and fibres; found chiefly in the joints, the thorax, and various rigid tubes, such as the larynx and trachea.
Cataracts
Progressive condition characterised by an abnormal loss of transparency of the lens of the eye; can lead to blindness if not treated.
Catheter
Thin, flexible tube inserted into a body cavity or vessel.
Cauterise Cauterize
To cut skin or tissues using electric current; also used for sealing small blood vessels that are bleeding.
cDNA
A DNA strand copied from mRNA.
Cell
The simplest structural unit of life that is capable of functioning on its own.
Cell cycle
The cycle of events that regulate cell division.
Cell membrane
Outside boundary of a human cell.
Cell nucleus
Part of the cell that contains the cell's genetic material.
Central nervous system
The brain and spinal cord.
Cerebellum
Area at the back of the brain that coordinates muscle movements.
Cerebrum
The largest and mostly highly evolved part of the brain; concerned with higher functions.
Cervix
The opening of the uterus.
Chemoreceptor
Receptor that detects chemical changes in the blood.
Chlamydia
A type of bacteria that causes a common sexually transmitted disease, whose symptoms include painful urination and mild, mucus-like discharge.
Cholesterol
A type of lipid used by the body to make cell membranes, bile, and steroid hormones.
Chromosome
Each linear strand of DNA and associated proteins; found in the nucleus of animal cells.
Chronic
A health-related condition persisting over time.
Chyme
Semi-fluid mixture of gastric secretions and partially-digested food that passes from the stomach to the small intestine.
Cilia Cilium
Minute, hairlike structures on the surface of microorganisms that produce movement. Cilia is plural; cilium is singular.
Circulatory system
Body system made of the heart and blood vessels responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, and waste products throughout the body via the blood.
Cirrhosis
Disease of the liver, frequently caused by alcohol abuse.
Clinical study Clinical trial
Any investigation in human subjects intended to
Clitoris
The portion of the vulva composed of erectile tissue and packed with nerve endings.
Clone
A population of genetically identical cells or DNA molecules.
Cloning
The formation of clones or exact genetic replicas.
Cluster headache
Multiple short attacks of very severe unilateral head pain. Associated symptoms (e.g. watering eye, red eye, running nose etc.) usually occur on the same side as the headache.
Coagulate
Clot
Codon
A unit of three consecutive bases in DNA.
Coitus
Sexual intercourse.
Colitis
Inflammation of the colon.
Collagen
Protein fibres forming the majority of connective tissue, cartilage, and bone in the body.
Colon
The large intestine.
Colonoscopy
Endoscopic examination of the colon.
Communicable
Capable of being transmitted from human to human.
Congenital
Present from birth.
Contrast agent
An agent employed to improve the visualisation of body tissues by X-rays and other imaging techniques.
Coronary artery
Either of two arteries that arise one from the left and one from the right side of the aorta.
Cortex
The outermost area of the brain, responsible for conscious perception, thought, and action.
Cranium
The skull.
Curative
Describes treatment given with the intention of curing the disease.
Cyanotic
Bluish; cyanotic tissues are usually poorly supplied with oxygen.
Cyst Cysts
A closed sac having a distinct membrane and developing abnormally in a body cavity or structure.
Decongestant
Drug that constricts blood vessels and thereby reduces swelling and congestion in the nose.
Defaecation Defecation
Ejection of solid waste material from the body through the anus.
Dehydration
Loss of fluid.
Dendrite
One of many projections from the neuron cell body that receive incoming transmissions from other cells.
Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA
Genetic material present in all cells responsible for producing proteins.
Depression
A mental disorder characterised by severe feelings of sadness, hopelessness and despair, whose severity is out of proportion to any actual event or condition that may have caused them.
Diabetes
Any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive discharge of urine and persistent thirst.
Dialysis
Procedure that filters blood and removes waste products by passing blood through a special machine that acts as an "external kidney".
Diaphragm
Broad, dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic and abdominal cavities and generates most of the work of breathing.
Diarrhea Diarrhoea
Loose, watery stools occurring more than three times in one day
Digestive system
Group of organs involved in the ingestion and processing of food.
Digital rectal exam DRE
Examination of the prostate gland by the insertion of a finger into the rectum to feel the gland's size, shape and mobility.
Diphtheria
An acute infectious condition whose symptoms include sore throat, fever, cough, difficulty breathing and apnoea.
Distal
Farthest from the point of origin.
Diuretic
A substance or drug that tends to increase the discharge of urine.
Dopamine
A substance in the brain that affects patterns of thought.
Double-blind
Study design in which neither the patients nor the investigators know whether a patient is being given the active drug or a placebo.
Drug
A chemical substance that affects a biological process.
Duodenum
The relatively short beginning segment of the small intestine that receives partially digested food from the stomach and connects to the jejunum.
Dura mater
The tough, outermost membrane surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Dysentery
Severe, bloody or mucus-streaked diarrhoea.
Dyspnea Dyspnoea
Shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing.
ECG Electrocardiogram
Graphic record of the heart's electrical activity.
Echocardiogram
The use of sound waves to image internal structures such as the heart and great vessels.
Eczema
Non-contagious skin inflammation characterised by redness, itching, and crusted lesions.
Edema Oedema
Swelling caused by retention of fluid within a tissue.
Electrolyte Electrolytes
A substance that dissociates in water (or other solvents) into ions, and is thus capable of conducting electricity.
Embolism
Sudden arterial blockage by a clot or other material carried by the bloodstream.
Emetic
An agent that causes vomiting.
Emphysema
Lung disease in which small air sacs and adjacent small airways are destroyed, decreasing the surface area available for gas exchange; most commonly caused by cigarette smoking.
Endemic
Peculiar to or prevalent in a particular place or region.
Endocardium
The inner lining of the heart.
Endoscopy
A diagnostic technique that uses a flexible video tube to view and perform biopsy of the esophagus and other digestive organs.
Enema
A liquid introduced into the bowel via the rectum.
Enzyme
Any complex protein which induces or speeds up a biochemical reaction without being changed in the process.
Epidemic Epidemics
A community-acquired infection that occurs in large numbers of people simultaneously.
Epidemiology
The study of the distribution of diseases within populations.
Epidermis
Most superficial layer of the three layers of skin.
Epidural
Situated upon or administered outside the dura mater.
Epithelial cells
Cells that function as tissue coverings and that are connected to one another by a cementing substance.
Erythropoietin
A hormone secreted by the kidneys that increases the volume of blood.
Esophagus Oesophagus
Muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach.
Estrogen Oestrogen
Swelling caused by retention of fluid within a tissue.
Excision
Surgical removal.
Familial Hemiplegic Migraine FHM
An inherited type of migraine. Symptoms include
Fascia
The fibrous tissue between structures in the body, such as muscles.
Febrile
Feverish.
Femoral
Of or relating to the femur or thigh.
Fetus Foetus
An unborn child.
Flagella
Whip-like tails that are extensions of bacterial cell walls and provide movement.
Forebrain
The largest division of the brain. Carries out complex activities like learning, reasoning and memory.
Ganglia Ganglion
Any structure containing a collection of nerve cell bodies and often also containing numbers of synapses. Ganglion is singular; ganglia is plural.
Gangrene
Tissue death due to inadequate blood supply.
Gene Genes
Segments of material that carry the codes for reproducing proteins in specific sequences; the genetic material that makes up chromosomes.
Genome
The complete genetic content of an organism.
Genomics
The analysis of the entire genome of a chosen organism.
Genus
The level of organism classification just above species.
Glucose
Simple sugar that is an important source of energy in the body.
Gonorrhea Gonorrhoea
A common sexually transmitted disease.
Gout
Recurrent acute arthritis of peripheral joints. Often presents as pain and swelling confined to one joint. The big toe joint is commonly affected.
Gynaecologic Gynaecology Gynecologic Gynecology
Related to the female reproductive organs.
Haematoma Hematoma
Localised, abnormal mass of blood outside blood vessels.
Haemmorage Hemorrage
Extensive, rapid blood loss.
Haemoglobin Hemoglobin
A protein found in red blood cells that has a strong affinity for oxygen.
Hay fever
An allergy triggered by seasonal allergen, such as tree pollen.
Heart failure
A condition in which the heart fails to pump an adequate supply of blood to the body tissues, often resulting in fluid accumulation in the lungs and/or lower extremities.
Heart rate
The number of heartbeats per minute.
Heartburn
A burning sensation below the breastbone that radiates toward the throat or mouth.
Hemiplegia
One-sided paralysis.
Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver.
Hindbrain
The section of the brain that regulates the reflexes and contains the root of the trigeminal nerve, which is important in transmitting the pain associated with headaches.
Histamine
A hormone released by the body during allergic reaction that stimulates gastric secretion and causes dilation of capillaries, constriction of bronchial smooth muscle, and decreased blood pressure.
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
The general name for a family of retroviruses that cause Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
Homeostasis
Constant internal environment that adjusts to external forces.
Hormone Hormones
A substance, produced by one tissue (or type of cell) that travels through the blood from one site in the body to another, where it stimulates specific chemical actions.
Hypertension
High blood pressure.
Immune system
Network of cells and organs that protects the body from outside invaders.
Immunization
The process by which a normally vulnerable host can be made resistant to an infectious disease, usually by administration of a vaccine.
In situ
In the original position.
In vitro
Occurring outside the living organism; typically an experiment performed in a test tube or other artificially designed environment. (Compare with in vivo).
In vivo
Occurring within a living organism. (Compare with in vitro).
Inbreeding
The mating of closely related individuals.
Infarction
Tissue death as a result of ischaemia.
Infection
The process in which the body is invaded by microorganisms, which then multiply within the tissues.
Inferior vena cava
The lower branch of the vena cava, the large vein that returns deoxygenated blood from the trunk and legs to the right side of the heart.
Inflammation
Cellular and chemical reaction that occurs in body tissues in response to injury or irritation from a physical, chemical, or biologic agent.
Inhale
Breathe in.
Inoculation
The introduction of cells into a specific environment in order to start a culture.
Insulin
A hormone made by the islet cells of the pancreas; insulin controls the levels of glucose in the blood.
Internal carotid artery
The main blood vessel supplying blood to the brain.
Interstitial
The space between cells.
Intima
Innermost layer of a blood vessel.
Intracranial
Inside the skull.
Intrinsic
Inherent; part of the essential nature.
Intubation
Placement of a breathing tube into the trachea, usually via the mouth, to assist breathing.
Invasive
1) Medical procedures requiring introduction of an instrument into the body. 2) Marked by the tendency to spread, especially into healthy tissue.
Investigational product
A pharmaceutical form of an active ingredient or placebo being tested or used as a reference in a clinical trial.
Investigator
A person responsible for the conduct of the clinical trial at a trial site. If a trial is conducted by a team of individuals at a trial site, the investigator is the responsible leader of the team and may be called the principal investigator.
Investigator's brochure
A compilation of the clinical and nonclinical data on the investigational product(s) which is relevant to the study of the investigational product(s) in human subjects.
Ischaemia Ischemia
An insufficient supply of blood to cells leading to a lack of oxygen and subsequent injury. If it is severe enough it will result in permanent damage; necrosis and scarring of the tissue.
Jejunum
The middle section of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum.
Keratin
Insoluble protein which is a constituent of the epidermis, hair, nails, and other tissues.
Labia
The portion of the vulva that consists of two sets of tissue folds composed of fat and containing numerous glands.
Lactation
The formation or secretion of milk.
Lactose
A milk-derived sugar.
Large bowel
Large intestine, including the caecum, colon, and rectum.
Larynx
The "voice box".
LES LOS lower esophageal sphincter
The opening that separates the lower part of the oesophagus from the stomach.
Lesion Lesions
Areas of tissue with impaired function as a result of disease or injury.
Leucocytes Leukocytes
White blood cells.
Leukaemia Leukemia
Any of a group of malignant diseases in which the bone marrow and other blood-forming organs produce increased numbers of leucocytes.
Ligament Ligaments
A strong fibrous band of tissue that connects two bones at a joint, increasing stability and limiting movement to certain directions only.
Liver
Large, glandular organ that manufactures blood proteins, filters blood, regulates glucose metabolism, and manufactures bile to assist in the digestion of fats.
Lobectomy
Surgical removal of a lung lobe or lobes.
Loin Loins
The part of the body of a human or a quadruped that is situated on each side of the spinal column between the hipbone and the false ribs.
Lumpectomy
Removal of a portion of the breast.
Lupus
An autoimmune, inflammatory disease which affects various tissues including the joints and kidneys.
Lymph
The fluid derived from the blood, which circulates in the vessels of the lymphatic system.
Lymph node Lymph nodes
Collection of immune cells and supportive tissue; located throughout the body.
Lymphatic
Referring to the system of vessels in the body that return intracellular fluid to the circulatory system.
Lymphocyte Lymphocytes
Type of white blood cell important in the immune system to identify, process, and fight foreign invaders.
Lymphoma Lymphomas
Cancer of the lymph nodes, which is one of the most common cancers in young people. The most common type of lymphoma is Hodgkin's disease, and thus any other type of lymphoma is referred to a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Malignant
The term that describes a tumour that invades and destroys the tissue in which it originates and which is capable of spreading locally or metastasising.
Mammary gland
A gland that secretes milk.
Mammography
A radiographic means of examining the tissues of the breast.
Mastectomy
Removal of the whole breast.
Melanin
Pigment in the skin, the amount of which determines the darkness of the skin.
Melanoma
A form of skin cancer that affects the pigment producing cell in the skin and is capable of spreading rapidly through the body.
Membrane
1. A thin, pliable layer of tissue covering surfaces or separating or connecting regions, structures, or organs of an animal or a plant. 2. Cell membrane.
Menarche
The time at which menstruation first begins.
Menopause
The cessation of production of an egg by the ovaries. The menopause happens naturally in women aged 45-55 years and can be induced prematurely by surgical removal of the ovaries.
Menstrual cycle
The periodic, 4-weekly sequence of events in sexually mature women which prepares the body for reproduction by producing an egg and growing the endometrial lining of the uterus for implantation.
Metabolism
Physical and chemical processes that sustain a living organism by producing, storing, and using energy.
Metacarpal Metacarpals
Five small cylindrical bones that extend from the wrist to the fingers.
Metastases Metastasis
The spread of cancer to distant sites in the body.
Microorganisms
Organisms, such as bacteria and viruses, that are too small to be seen with the naked eye.
Micturition
The process of emptying the bladder, also called voiding or urination.
Midbrain
The section of the brain that links the forebrain and hindbrain. Thought to play an important role in migraine headaches.
Migraine
A throbbing or pounding headache, usually one-sided, and characterised by vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and in some cases, scintillating light sensations (called an aura) before an attack.
Muscle
A specialised type of tissue with the ability to contract and cause movement.
Mutation
A permanent change in a gene that can be transmitted to offspring.
Myocardial infarction
Heart attack.
Myocardium
The middle layer of the heart, composed mostly of muscle.
Nerves
Bundles of conducting fibres.
Neural
Related to the nervous system.
Neuron Neurons
Nerve cells with conducting fibres.
Neurotransmitter Neurotransmitters
A chemical substance in the brain that carries signals from one neuron to the next.
Nocturnal
Occurring at night.
Nonspecific
Not distinguishing.
Noradrenaline Norepinephrine
A substance secreted into the bloodstream that causes the heart to beat faster.
NSAIDS
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Used to reduce the severity and duration of migraines.
Nuclei
Localized groups of neurons in the brain.
Nucleus
A large, membrane-bound, usually spherical protoplasmic structure within a living cell, containing the cell's hereditary material and controlling its metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
Obstetric
Related to pregnancy and childbirth.
Occult
Hidden; concealed; not immediately obvious or overtly expressed.
Oncogene Oncogenes
Genes that cause unregulated cell growth and proliferation.
Oral cavity
Mouth.
Organism Organisms
Living things.
Ovarian
Referring to the ovary, a female reproductive organ containing unfertilised eggs.
Palate
Tissue and bone wall separating the oral and nasal cavities.
Palliative
Treatment that has no curative intent but is given to maintain quality of life and to relieve suffering in a terminally ill patient.
Palpate Palpates
To examine the body by feeling with the hands or fingers.
Palpitation Palpitations
Sensation that the heart is beating fast or "racing."
Pancreas
Spongy, elongated organ that produces digestive juices, sodium bicarbonate, and insulin.
Parasite
An organism that lives upon or within another organism and takes advantage of that organism; common cause of infectious diseases worldwide.
Parietal cell Parietal cells
The cells in the stomach that produce acid.
Pathogen Pathogens
Any organism capable of causing a disease.
Pelvis
The basin-shaped structure of the vertebrate skeleton that rests on the lower limbs and supports the spinal column.
Pericardium
The outer fluid-filled sac that surrounds and protects the heart.
Perineal
Referring to the perineum, the external body surface surrounding the vaginal and rectal orifices.
Periodontal
Pertaining to the gums.
Perirectal
Surrounding the rectum.
Peristalsis
Contractions of the muscular layers of the GI tract that propel food forward.
Phagocyte
Cell that ingests and destroys foreign substances; this process is called phagocytosis.
Pharynx
The cone-shaped space that connects the mouth and nasal cavities to the oesophagus; it is commonly referred to as the "throat".
Phenotype
The appearance of an individual resulting from an interaction of genetic and environmental influences.
Phonophobia
Intolerance of sound.
Photophobia
Aversion to light.
Pituitary gland
A cherry-like organ at the base of the brain responsible for controlling growth and development.
Placebo
In clinical trials, an inert substance identical in appearance to the substance being tested.
Placenta
A highly vascular organ on the inner wall of the uterus permitting exchange of gases and substances between mother and baby.
Plaque
1. A small disk-shaped formation or growth; a patch. 2. A deposit of fatty material on the inner lining of an arterial wall, characteristic of atherosclerosis.
Plasma
The liquid portion of the blood (after the cells have been removed).
Platelet
Cell fragments that are important in the formation of blood clots, in the stemming of blood loss and in the repair of injury to blood vessels.
Pneumonia
Infection of the actual lung tissue (in comparison to the airways).
Population
The total number of inhabitants constituting a particular race, class, or group in a specified area.
Posterior
Situated nearer the rear part of the body.
Postpartum
After delivery.
Postprandial
Following a meal.
Proctology
Surgical specialty concerned with the anus, rectum, and their diseases.
Prodrome
The first stage of a migraine. Symptoms include
Prognosis
A forecast of the probable future course and outcome of a disease.
Prophylactic
An agent given to prevent the occurrence of a disease or symptom(s).
Prophylaxis
Prevention of disease.
Prostate gland
A structure that surrounds the upper portion of the urethra in men; secretes a thin fluid that is a component of semen.
Prostatectomy
The surgical removal of the prostate gland.
Prostatic
Referring to the prostate gland, which helps produce semen in men.
Prosthetic
An artificial device serving as a substitute for a missing or damaged body part.
Protein Proteins
Fundamental components of all living cells and include many substances, such as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies, that are necessary for the proper functioning of an organism.
Proximal
Nearest the point of origin.
Psoriasis
An autoimmune disease affecting the skin and joints.
Psychosis
A major mental disorder of organic or emotional origin in which there is a departure from normal patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting; commonly characterised by loss of contact with reality, delusions, or hallucinations.
Pulmonary artery
Part of the pulmonary circulation. It leaves the right ventricle and divides into a number of smaller arteries on entering the lungs. It carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs.
Radical
Curative treatment that may be quite aggressive.
Randomised Randomized
Study design in which subjects are randomly assigned to the different study groups, for example the active drug group or a control group being given a placebo.
RDNA recombinant DNA
DNA molecules created by the fusion of DNA from different sources.
Reagents
Sources of biological or chemical material that can be used as the starting blocks in laboratory experiments.
Rectum
Terminal segment of the large intestine that serves as a reservoir for faeces.
Reflex
An involuntary response or movement, often mediated by the spinal cord.
Renin
A protein secreted by the kidneys that raises blood pressure back to normal when it begins to fall.
Ribonucleic acid RNA
Genetic material, composed of a single strand of nucleic acid, the primary function of which is protein synthesis.
Sacral
Referring to the area around the base of the spine (tailbone).
SAE serious adverse event
Any untoward medical occurrence that at any dose results in death or is life-threatening.
Saliva
A secretion in the mouth that lubricates food.
Saturated fats
White, oily substances that are solid at room temperature and whose main component is saturated fatty acids (fatty acids lacking double bonds), as found in animal fats and tropical oils.
Sedative
A drug that produces a state of rest or sleep.
Sedentary
Characterised by little or no physical activity.
Semen
The sperm-rich fluid ejaculated from the penis at sexual climax.
Serology
The study of in vitro interactions of antibodies with antigens.
Serotonin
A neurotransmitter involved in mood, sleep and pain transmission.
Serum
The watery portion of an animal fluid remaining after coagulation
Sex chromosomes
The chromosomes involved in sex determination (X and Y in humans).
Sinusitis
Inflammation of the sinuses.
Sleep apnea Sleep apnoea
A pathological cessation of breathing that occurs when the individual is asleep, which may be due to a neurological or physical cause, or a combination of both.
Soluble
Capable of being dissolved.
Somatic
Relating to the body wall i.e. excluding the viscera.
Species
Organism classification that includes individuals that share the same heredity, are similar in morphology and behaviour, and can produce similar offspring.
Sperm Spermatozoa
A motile male gamete (sperm).
Sphincter
Circular muscle that constricts to close and relaxes to open a passageway.
Sphygmanometer
A cuff wrapped around an extremity (usually the upper arm) to measure blood pressure; a blood pressure cuff.
Sphygmomanometer
An instrument for measuring blood pressure.
Spirometer
A device that measures the force of exhalation.
Staging
Defining the stage at which a tumour is at to help decisions on the most appropriate treatment.
Stem cells
Immature (precursor) cells from which mature cells arise.
Stomach
The organ responsible for preparing food for digestion.
Stool
Waste matter eliminated from the bowels in a single bowel movement
Strep throat
Streptococcal pharyngitis, or inflammation of the pharynx, usually caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Symptoms include red and sore throat, difficulty in swallowing, fever, swollen neck lymph nodes, nausea and loss of appetite, among others.
Stroke
The sudden loss of neurologic function due to brain ischaemia or haemorrhage, causing damage or death of brain tissue also called a cerebrovascular accident or CVA.
Subcutaneous
Under the skin.
Suppository
A formulation designed to be inserted into the rectum, where it dissolves, releasing the active drug.
Susceptible
Vulnerable.
Symbiosis
The coexistence of bacteria and their human hosts in commensal, mutualistic, or parasitic relationships.
Symptom Symptoms
Physical manifestations of disease as experienced by the patient.
Syncope
Temporary loss of consciousness resulting from lack of oxygen to the brain; fainting spell.
Syndrome
Aggregation of signs and symptoms that together constitute a picture of a disease.
Systemic
Involving the whole body.
Systole
Contraction of the heart, providing the pumping action for driving blood through the circulation.
T cells
One of the two major lymphocyte classes that mediate the immune process.
Tendon
A strong, whitish coloured cord of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscles to bones.
Teratogen
Literally, monster forming. Any drug or agent that will cause birth defects if taken during pregnancy.
Testes Testicles
The male gonads and main site of testosterone production.
Testosterone
The main male sex hormone responsible for the growth and maintenance of the secondary sexual characteristics (body and facial hair, vocal cord thickening, increased musculature).
Thalamus
The part of the brain involved in relaying sensory impulses to the cerebral cortex.
Therapeutic
Any agent (drug, gene, protein or other molecule) that is beneficial in a disease-healing process.
Thoracic
Referring to the chest.
Thromboembolism
Obstruction of blood vessels by unnecessary blood clots
Thrombosis
The formation of blood clots at sites where they are not required to prevent blood loss.
Tissue
Section of an organ that consists of a largely homogenous population of cell types.
Toxicity
The degree to which a substance is poisonous or harmful.
Trachea
Hollow, flexible, but sturdy air tube located in the lower respiratory tract that contains C-shaped cartilage in its walls; provides a passageway through which air can reach the lungs; also known as the windpipe.
Trigeminal nerve
The main nerve that transmits sensations from the face and head to the brain.
Trigger
An agent or event that causes a response.
Tuberculosis
A contagious infection primarily affecting the lungs and sometimes other organs, caused by Myobacterium tuberculosis.
Tumor Tumors Tumour Tumours
A mass of differentiated cancer cells that are growing as an autonomous organ and are vascularised (have a blood supply).
Ulna
The bone on the little-finger side of the human forearm that forms with the humerus the elbow joint and serves as a pivot in rotation of the hand.
Ultrasound
Procedure to create an image of various organs in the body by sending out high-frequency sound waves, which get reflected by the internal structures.
Ureter Ureters
Tube carrying urine from the kidney to the bladder.
Urination
To discharge urine from the body.
Watchful waiting
A treatment approach in which no immediate action is taken to treat the patient.
White blood cell
Blood cell whose chief function is to protect the body from microorganisms that cause disease.
X chromosome
In mammals, the sex chromosome that is found in two copies in the homogametic sex (female in humans) and one copy in the heterogametic sex (male in humans).
X-ray
Photography of the internal structures by the passage of X-rays through the body.
Zoonoses
Diseases spread to humans from animal reservoirs.
 
Careers|Disclaimer|Terms of Use|Privacy Policy|Contact Us
SSL
ABOUT SSL CERTIFICATES
Copyright 2017 Paramount Health Group. All Rights Reserved.